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Bilinear Interpolation / Double Interpolation


  1. Enter x1 and x2, which are the known bounding values for x

  2. Enter x, which is the value for which you are interpolating

  3. Enter y1 and y2, which are the known bounding values for y  

  4. Enter y, which is the value for which you are interpolating

  5. Enter P11, P12, P21, and P22,  which are the data points at (x1,y1), (x1,y2), (x2,y1) and (x,y2) respectively.

  6. Click the Calculate button, and the interpolated value will be shown in Red in the center box.

Bilinear Interpolation

Methodology, Equations & Example:

Adicot, Inc.'s Bilinear Interpolation Calculator is a quick and easy tool to return the interpolated value based on the bilinear interpolation algorithm. The term "bilinear" refers to an interpolation technique that considers the values of the four nearest neighboring pixels (or data points) to estimate the value of a point within the grid. These four points form a square, and the interpolation calculates the weighted average of their values based on the distance from the desired point. In addition to "bilinear interpolation," this technique may also be referred to as "double interpolation" or "bi-linear filtering" in certain contexts.

Bilinear interpolation is performed by considering the distances of the desired point from each of the four nearest pixels. The distances are used to calculate weighting factors, which determine the contribution of each pixel to the interpolated value. The closer a pixel is to the desired point, the higher its weight. Once the weights are determined, they are multiplied by the corresponding point values and summed to obtain the interpolated value.

The method of Bilinear Interpolation or double interpolation is as follows:

Step 1 Perform a linear interpolation at point (x,y1):

R(x,y1) = P11(x2-x)/(x2-x1) + P21(x-x1)/(x2-x1)

Step 2 Perform a linear interpolation at point (x,y2):

R(x,y2) = P12(x2-x)/(x2-x1) + P22(x-x1)/(x2-x1)

Step 3 Perform a linear interpolation at point (x,y) using the results from Step 1 and Step 2:

R(x,y) = R(x,y1)(y2-y)/(y2-y1) + R(x,y2)(y-y1)/(y2-y1)

Step 4 Substitute values for R(x,y2) and R(x,y2) to find the resulting interpolated value, R(x,y), at point (x,y):

R(x,y) =  P11(x2-x)(y2-y)/((x2-x1)(y2-y1)) + P21(x-x1)(y2-y)/((x2-x1)(y2-y1)) + P12(x2-x)(y-y1)/((x2-x1)(y2-y1)) + P22(x-x1)(y-y1)/((x2-x1)(y2-y1))

Bilinear Interpolation Graph
Bilinear Interpolation Performance Data at Design Conditions.jpg
Bilinear Interpolation Example


Suppose you want to calculate the Total Cooling Capacity of a 5-ton Bryant® package unit. A snippet of the equipment's performance data table at design conditions is provided.  For our scenario, the design conditions are: 

  • Condenser Entering Air Temperature:  79oF

  • Evaporator Entering Wet Bulb Temperature: 65oF


This problem will be solved three times.  Solution 1 will be to actually perform linear interpolation three times using Steps 1, 2, and 3 above.  Solution 2 will use the combined bilinear interpolation equation shown in Step 4 above. Solution 3 will show how to use the calculator to quickly and accurately obtain the results.

For all solutions, the following inputs are below as provided in the table or given values:

P11 = 55.04 MBtuh

P12 = 59.00 MBtuh

P21 = 52.59 MBtuh

P22 = 56.34 MBtuh

x1 = 75oF

x2 = 85oF

y1 = 63oF

y2 = 67oF

x = 79oF

y = 65oF

Solution 1: 

Step 1: Interpolate  around point (x,y1)

R(x,y1)  = P11(x2-x)/(x2-x1) + P21(x-x1)/(x2-x1)

= 55.04 (85-79)/(85-75) + 52.59 (79-75)/(85-75)

= 54.06 MBtuh

Step 2: Interpolate around point (x,y2)

R(x,y2)  = P12(x2-x)/(x2-x1) + P22(x-x1)/(x2-x1)

= 59.00(85-79)/(85-75) + 56.34(79-75)/(85-75)

=57.936 MBtuh

Step 3 Perform a linear interpolation at point (x,y) using the results from Step 1 and Step 2:

R(x,y) = R(x,y1)(y2-y)/(y2-y1) + R(x,y2)(y-y1)/(y2-y1)

= 54.06(67-65)/(67-63) + 57.936(65-63)/(67-63)

=55.998 MBtuh

Solution 2:

The bilinear interpolation as a single equation as shown above: 

R(x,y) =  P11(x2-x)(y2-y)/((x2-x1)(y2-y1)) + P21(x-x1)(y2-y)/((x2-x1)(y2-y1)) +  P12(x2-x)(y-y1)/((x2-x1)(y2-y1)) + P22(x-x1)(y-y1)/((x2-x1)(y2-y1)) 


    =55.998 MBtuh


Solution 3: To Solve using the calculator, enter the inputs in the same order that they appear in the table.  Below is a table showing the inputs.  The result is shown in red in the middle of the table as 55.998MBtuh.

Bilinear Interpolation-Example Problem
Bilinear Interpolation Example Screenshot
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